Abstract—For higher education institutions that encourage digital transformation, understanding the barriers are necessary for the digital transformation accomplishment. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the literature on barriers to digital transformation in higher education. To get a wide overview in identifying the barriers to the implementation of digital transformation, a structured literature review was used to select the relevant studies published. Nine categories were identified based on the literature reviewed: vision, strategy and policy, resources, leadership, digital skill and knowledge, technology, adaptability, resistance to change, and government and economic. Our findings provided a fish-bone diagram that outlines twenty-two barriers to digital transformation in higher education. The main contribution of this study is a synthesis of the state of the art of barriers to digital transformation in higher education. We contribute to provide a common basic understanding of barriers to digital transformation in higher education to overcome barriers for improving the possibility of success. Moreover, we give an insight into future research on barriers exploration in the context of digital transformation in higher education.
Index Terms—Digital transformation, digital technology, digital innovation, higher education, policymakers, barriers framework.
B. R. Aditya is with the Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia. He is also with School of Applied Science, Telkom University, Indonesia (corresponding author; e-mail: email@example.com).
R. Ferdiana and S. S. Kusumawardani are with the Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com).