Abstract—Gamification of learning in higher education has been used as an educational tool to motivate and engage students. Despite its positive impacts demonstrated in the existing body of knowledge, some adversaries are concerned with the decline of learners’ intrinsic motivation and becoming independent of extrinsic rewards. This research aims to design a user-centered and meaningful gamification framework for students who are explicitly learning English as a second language to resolve these adversaries. The empirical data for this study was collected through a focus group discussion. It was conducted to obtain students’ learning factors that would contribute to user-centered learning. Based on the focus group outcome, a gamification course using a learning management system with embedded gamification features will be best suited for these specific students. The affordances used in this study are rewards, levels, badges, and points. The practical implications of this study are to gain a more in-depth understanding of the students’ motivations in language learning, which is crucial in creating a meaningful user-centered game design.
Index Terms—Language learning, gamification, hospitality education, student engagement.
The authors are with the Faculty of Hospitality and Tourism, Prince of Songkla University, Phuket 83120 Thailand (corresponding author: Kevin Fuchs; e-mail: email@example.com).