Abstract—Although information and communication
technology (ICT) literacy is a key competence for students in
the 21st century, most scholars only focus on ICT literacy in
higher education and vocational education, while neglecting to
discuss this competence on primary education. Given that it is
not clear how various level factors affect primary school
students' ICT literacy, this study conducted a multilevel
analysis to examine the possible factors influencing primary
school students’ ICT literacy. The data was released by
Taiwan's administrative department in 2013, and the valid
sample number is 943 students (including one of their parents)
and 89 school deans. The results showed that: 1) The variables
at student-level including gender, self-efficacy, ICT application
in spare time and family salary income were significantly
related to students' ICT literacy; 2) At the school-level, the
larger the school size was, the higher the students' ICT literacy
Index Terms—ICT literacy, multilevel analysis, primary school student, school size.
Yujiao Wang is with the School of Educational Science, Liupanshui Normal University, Guizhou, China (e-mail:Wangyj_psych@yeah.net).
I-Hua Chen is with the Chinese Academy of Education Big Data, Qufu Normal University, Shandong, China (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
Cite: Yujiao Wang and I-Hua Chen, "A Multilevel Study: Factors Influencing Taiwan Primary School Students' ICT Literacy," International Journal of Information and Education Technology vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 16-23, 2021.Copyright © 2021 by the authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).