Abstract—This study reviews recently published scientific literature on the use of chatbot in education, in order to: (a) identify the potential contribution of the incorporation of chatbot as educational tool in educational institutions, (b) present a synthesis of the available empirical evidence on the educational effectiveness of chatbot as an educational tool, and (c) define future research perspectives concerning educational chatbot. From 369 sources, 25 studies on chatbots and their application in education were selected through a step‐by‐step procedure based on the guidelines of the modified PRISMA framework, using a set of predefined criteria between 2016 – 2021 in five prestigious databases (a) Ebscohost, (b) Emerald, (c) ScienceDirect, (d) SpringerLink, and (e) Scopus. For each article, we analyse the purpose of the study, the content to be taught with the aid of chatbot, the type of chatbot used, the research method used, and the sample characteristics (sample size, age range of students and/or level of education) and the results observed. The articles reviewed suggest that educational chatbot usually acts as an element that enhances learning and other benefits; however, this is not always the case, as there are still few studies that have reported adverse situations. The outcomes of the literature review are discussed in terms of their implications for future research and can provide helpful guidance for educators, practitioners and researchers in terms of design, implementation and research in the area.
Index Terms—Chatbot, education, chatbot in education, intelligent agent, PRISMA, systematic literature review, trend
Chee Ken Nee and Mohd Hishamuddin Abdul Rahman are with the Department of Computing, Faculty of Arts, Computing and Creative Industry, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Malaysia.
Noraffandy Yahaya, Nor Hasniza Ibrahim are with the Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, School of Education, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia.
Rafiza Abdul Razak is with the Department Curriculum & Instructional Technology, Faculty of Education, University of Malaya 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Chie Sugino is with the Department of International Culture, Komazawa Women's University, Tokyo, Japan.
*Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org (C.K.N.)
Cite: Chee Ken Nee*, Mohd Hishamuddin Abdul Rahman, Noraffandy Yahaya, Nor Hasniza Ibrahim, Rafiza Abdul Razak, and Chie Sugino, "Exploring the Trend and Potential Distribution of Chatbot in Education: A Systematic Review," International Journal of Information and Education Technology vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 516-525, 2023.Copyright © 2023 by the authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).