—“Flipped learning” is implemented in elementary, secondary, and higher education levels. In the “flipped learning” process, pre-recorded video lectures are used to promote the productivity and effectiveness of face-to-face classroom activities. In such learning environments, it is expected that learners might consider not only the learning system or technology but also the learning process useful. However, previous studies have only focused on the perceived usefulness of a learning system or technology of “flipped learning” and few studies have focused on the usefulness of the learning process of “flipped learning.” Therefore, this study purposed to identify the contents and structure of learners’ perceived usefulness of “flipped learning.” As a result, 14 usefulness statements were identified as items for anxiety in perceived usefulness of “flipped learning” on instructional design, and the 14 items were classified into four clusters: “enhancement of classroom instruction,” “review and confirmation,” “learning effectiveness,” and “productivity and self-paced learning.”
—Flipped learning, instructional design, pre-service teacher education, Elementary education, secondary education.
Hiroki Yoshida is with Tokoha University, Shizuoka, Japan (e-mail:
Cite: Hiroki Yoshida, "Perceived Usefulness of “Flipped Learning” on Instructional Design for Elementary and Secondary Education: With Focus on Pre-service Teacher Education," International Journal of Information and Education Technology vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 430-434, 2016.