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IJIET 2023 Vol.13(4): 712-717
doi: 10.18178/ijiet.2023.13.4.1857

Noticing Formulaic Sequence through Typographic Enhancement Technique: Using an Online Platform

Masturah Sabri*, Faizahani Ab Rahman, and Aliff Nawi

Manuscript received May 20, 2022; revised June 30, 2022; accepted November 22, 2022.

Abstract—Knowledge of formulaic language is crucial for second-language learners, where it needs to be applied to engage with others in daily activities. Teaching formulaic sequences (FS) in language classrooms is likely to increase learners’ saliency and awareness of the sequences, promote their usage and achieve fluency. Pedagogically, special attention needs to be paid to teaching techniques of FS in English as a second language (ESL) or English as foreign language (EFL) classrooms, especially now that most classrooms have been moved to online platforms such as google classrooms, WebEx, zoom and many more. It is important to understand if learning through an online platform will have the same effect as in the traditional classroom. Through quasi-experimental approach, this study looks into the effect of typographic enhancement (TE) on learners noticing formulaic sequences from reading. ESL learners in this study read passages from two versions: a) highlighted and bold formulaic sequences, and b) without any highlighting and bold enhancement. Learners were afterwards to identify the FS they remembered encountering in the texts. The findings revealed that there is a positive effect among the low proficiency learners in the experimental group compared to the control group, through an online platform.

Index Terms—Typographic enhancement, formulaic sequence, English as a second language (ESL), online learning

The authors are with Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia.
*Correspondence: masturasabri@gmail.com (M.S.)


Cite: Masturah Sabri*, Faizahani Ab Rahman, and Aliff Nawi, "Noticing Formulaic Sequence through Typographic Enhancement Technique: Using an Online Platform," International Journal of Information and Education Technology vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 712-717, 2023.

Copyright © 2023 by the authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

General Information

  • ISSN: 2010-3689 (Online)
  • Abbreviated Title: Int. J. Inf. Educ. Technol.
  • Frequency: Monthly
  • DOI: 10.18178/IJIET
  • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Jon-Chao Hong
  • Managing Editor: Ms. Nancy Y. Liu
  • Abstracting/ Indexing: Scopus (CiteScore 2023: 2.8), INSPEC (IET), UGC-CARE List (India), CNKI, EBSCO, Google Scholar
  • E-mail: ijiet@ejournal.net
  • Article Processing Charge: 800 USD


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