Abstract—The pandemic is the right momentum for
developing countries to shift their education system towards
blended learning adoption despite all the potential challenges.
This study aims at investigating the effects of flipped and flex
blended learning models on mathematics abilities as well as the
role of gender and self-efficacy. A pre-post-test
quasi-experimental design with 128 eighth-grade students who
were equally divided into the flipped and flex classroom models
was employed. PROCESS Macro model 1 analysis revealed that
flipped classroom students performed better in their
problem-solving abilities than those in the flex class. A similar
effect was not observed in students’ conceptual understanding.
Self-efficacy belief was also a strong predictor of mathematics
abilities. However, it did not significantly moderate the
relationship between blended models and math-related
achievement. Furthermore, gender was also not associated with
the effectiveness of blended learning models. This study
provides insights into the potential of blended learning adoption
as a future education system in developing countries.
Index Terms—Blended learning, flipped classroom, mathematics, secondary school
Muhammad Jamaluddin and Auditya Purwandini Sutarto is with Universitas Qomaruddin, Gresik, Indonesia.
Mustaji Mustaji and Bachtiar S Bachri are with Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Surabaya, Indonesia.
*Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org (M.J.)
Cite: Muhammad Jamaluddin*, Mustaji Mustaji, Bachtiar S. Bachri, and Auditya Purwandini Sutarto, "The Role of Gender and Self-efficacy on the Relationship between Flipped and Flex Blended Learning and Mathematics Abilities," International Journal of Information and Education Technology vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 873-881, 2023.Copyright © 2023 by the authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).