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IJIET 2012 Vol.2(6): 574-579 ISSN: 2010-3689
DOI: 10.7763/IJIET.2012.V2.207

What Knowledge Exists about Drinking Water and Academic Achievements in Schools in Ghana, Sierra Leone and South Africa?

Christen Mohamed Wadan

Abstract—Knowledge exists about water and its relationship with poverty, health and sanitation, as well as ecological integrity. However, little knowledge exists about correlation between safe drinking water and academic achievements in schools. Investigations show little attention on water education in schools, even when international institutions are beating chests about creating and financing principles, declarations and conferences in recognition to importance of water, especially during last two decades in 20th century and first decade into the 21st century. The leading aim of study is to understand knowledge about drinking water and academic achievements in schools in Ghana, Sierra Leone and South Africa. Specific objective is to find out knowledge from students’ responses during interviews and test scores at various levels of schooling using chi-square (x2) and correlation coefficient (r) for analysis. These models are to help establish the relationship between these variables by testing hypotheses to show directions and strengths of these correlations. The data gathering methods include five ways. First, is testing students before sampling and initial instructions without drinking water. Second, testing after drinking water while participating in schooling exercises. The third method uses personal interactions and interviews to gather qualitative data. Fourth, uses psychologies of drinking water during tests and examinations. Last method uses interviews involving psychologists, psychiatrists, medical doctors, nurses, surgeons, physicians and other medical practitioners. Final results are positive with (x2=7.973>5.991) at 95% level of confidence, as r=0.997, and qualitative analysis show r=0.588, suggesting existence of relationship between drinking water and academic achievements. Results show drinking water improves academic achievements in schools. Respondents are in three countries with different latitudes, locations, climates and ecologies. This study shows how this high-prize diet contributes to academic achievements in learners.

Index Terms—Academic achievements, ghana, knowledge, safe drinking water, sierra leone, south africa.

Christen Mohamed Wadan is with Graduate School of Public and Development Management, University of Witwatersrand, St. Davids Place, Parktown, Johannesburg, South Africa. (e-mail: cmwadan@gmail.com).


Cite: Christen Mohamed Wadan, "What Knowledge Exists about Drinking Water and Academic Achievements in Schools in Ghana, Sierra Leone and South Africa?," International Journal of Information and Education Technology vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 574-579, 2012.

General Information

  • ISSN: 2010-3689 (Online)
  • Abbreviated Title: Int. J. Inf. Educ. Technol.
  • Frequency: Monthly
  • DOI: 10.18178/IJIET
  • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Dr. Steve Thatcher
  • Executive Editor: Ms. Nancy Y. Liu
  • Abstracting/ Indexing: Scopus (CiteScore 2022: 2.0), INSPEC (IET), UGC-CARE List (India), CNKI, EBSCO, Google Scholar
  • E-mail: ijiet@ejournal.net


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