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IJIET 2023 Vol.13(12): 1850-1857
doi: 10.18178/ijiet.2023.13.12.1998

Engagement Markers in EFL MOOC Lectures in Chinese Universities

Guo Xiaohua* and Noor Mala Ibrahim

Manuscript received June 21, 2023; revised July 27, 2023; accepted September 20, 2023.

Abstract—Effective engagement is a crucial aspect of teaching and learning, particularly in online environments such as Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), where face-to-face interaction is limited. However, there is minimal research on how instructors employ language to engage students within MOOCs. In this regard, the concept of engagement markers becomes invaluable. These linguistic devices facilitate interaction between speakers and their online audiences. This study involves an analysis utilizing a self-built corpus of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) MOOC lectures offered by Chinese universities. Hyland’s engagement model identified the types, frequency, and functions of engagement markers employed by lecturers to engage learners in EFL MOOC lectures. In particular, the researchers compared nationally recognized EFL MOOC lectures with those from ordinary universities. The research findings indicated diverse engagement markers in EFL MOOC lectures. Nationally recognized EFL MOOCs exhibited a more extensive and frequent utilization of these markers than their counterparts from ordinary universities. For example, EFL MOOC lectures from top universities made significantly greater use of personal pronouns than those from ordinary Chinese universities. These results hold significant implications for EFL lecturers, providing valuable insights into effective engagement strategies for MOOCs. Furthermore, the present study contributes to the professional development of educators in this dynamic educational landscape.

Index Terms—Engagement, engagement markers, English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) lectures, Chinese universities

Guo Xiaohua is with Language Academy, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia. Guo Xiaohua is also with Xi’an Fanyi University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China.
Noor Mala Ibrahim is with Language Academy, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.
*Correspondence: guoxiaohua@graduate.utm.my (G.X.)


Cite: Guo Xiaohua* and Noor Mala Ibrahim, "Engagement Markers in EFL MOOC Lectures in Chinese Universities," International Journal of Information and Education Technology vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 1850-1857, 2023.

Copyright © 2023 by the authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

General Information

  • ISSN: 2010-3689 (Online)
  • Abbreviated Title: Int. J. Inf. Educ. Technol.
  • Frequency: Monthly
  • DOI: 10.18178/IJIET
  • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Dr. Steve Thatcher
  • Managing Editor: Ms. Nancy Y. Liu
  • Abstracting/ Indexing: Scopus (CiteScore 2022: 2.0), INSPEC (IET), UGC-CARE List (India), CNKI, EBSCO, Google Scholar
  • E-mail: ijiet@ejournal.net


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